article defines the difference between cues, signals and
L. (1984). Touch the baby: Blind and visually impaired children as patients.
Helping them respond to care. New York: AFB Press.
booklet provides practical information on the use of communication and touch
cues in clinical settings. These signals help young children to understand when
interactions will involve caregiving or comfort, and when they will involve
uncomfortable medical procedures.
B. (Rev. 2003) Talking the language of the hands to the hands: The
importance of hands for the person who is deaf-blind. DB-LINK The National
Information Clearinghouse on Children who are Deaf-Blind.
paper focuses on the development of social relationships and language through
hand movements, manual exploration, and tactile interactions with children who
are deaf-blind. It provides strategies on ways to initiate and maintain
interactions with children who are deaf-blind. Available in English, Spanish,
German, and Swedish.
paper discusses various aspects of literacy as important for individuals who
are deaf-blind. These include the social functions or reading and writing,
conditions that facilitate literacy, and how to make literacy materials
accessible to individuals who are deaf-blind.
B.,& McLetchie, B. (2004). Developing concepts with children who are
deaf-blind. DB-LINK The National Information Clearinghouse on Children who
are Deaf-Blind. http://www.dblink.org/lib/concepts.htm
paper provides an overview of the influence of deaf-blindness on concept
development. It emphasizes the importance of relationships, communication and
conversation, access to the world, and activities and routines in supporting
concept development in children who are deaf-blind.
article provides strategies for supporting tactile skills during interactions
with children who have visual impairments and multiple disabilities. It
provides a format for observing and identifying the childs tactile skills
within daily activities and many practical suggestions. Available in English
C. (1996). Communication matrix. A communication skill assessment for
individuals at the earliest stages of communication development. Portland,
OR: Oregon Health Sciences University, Center on Self-Determination.
assessment tool identifies the range of communication development from
pre-intentional and intentional behaviors to the use of abstract symbols and
C., & Schweigert, P. (1997). Home inventory of problem solving skills.
Portland, OR: Oregon Health Sciences University, Center on
instrument focuses on early cognitive development of nonverbal children who
have severe and multiple disabilities. It assesses a childs basis skills
with objects, ways the child gains access to objects, and ways he or she uses
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Books and Manuals
S., Buultjens, M., Clark, C., Eyre, J.T., & Pease, L. (2000). Teaching
children who are deafblind. Contact communication and learning. London:
David Fulton. www.fultonpublishers.co.uk
discusses deaf-blindness and the need strategies for promoting the childs
communication and social interaction. It provides information on assessment,
instruction, and curriculum.
L. (Ed)(2002). Understanding deafblindness: Issues, perspectives, and
strategies. Logan, UT: HOPE. www.hopepubl.com
two-volume publication is a comprehensive resource for working with children
who are deaf-blind. These volumes include chapters on communication and ways to
promote the childs use of touch and tactile
R. (2001). Calendars: For students with multiple impairments including
deafblindness. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually
This step-by-step guide
describes the benefits of calendar systems and provides information on the
continuum of different types of calendars and on how to develop them. Also
available in Spanish.
Chen, D. (Ed.)
(1999). Essential elements in early intervention. Visual impairments and
multiple disabilities. New York: AFB Press. www.afb.org
This text focuses on supports
for infants who have visual impairments and multiple disabilities. Chapters are
organized under three areas: (a) the principles of early intervention, (b)
vision and hearing assessment, and (c) the development of learning strategies.
D., & Dote-Kwan, J. (Eds). (1995). Starting points. Instructional
practices for young children whose multiple disabilities include visual
impairment. Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.
This manual provides a
framework and specific strategies for teaching young children with visual
impairments and additional disabilities. Topics include identifying
characteristics and learning needs, guiding principles for instruction,
instructional strategies, communication, daily living skills, positive behavior
support, orientation and mobility, occupational therapy, roles of itinerant
teachers, and family perspectives.
& Downing, J.E. (2006). Tactile strategies for children who have visual
impairments and multiple disabilities: Promoting communication and learning
skills. New York: AFB Press www.afb.orwww.afb.org
explains the importance of the sense of touch to communication and learning and
discusses tactile adaptations to manual and alternative communication methods.
It provides a systematic approach to selecting tactile strategies to meet an
individual child's abilities and needs.
J.E. (2002). Including students with severe and multiple disabilities in
typical classrooms: Practical strategies for teachers. (2nd ed.) Baltimore:
Paul H. Brookes. www.brookespublishing.com
This book covers the age span
from preschool through high school of students learning in typical settings. It
provides examples of students with multiple disabilities, including sensory and
deaf-blindness. Specific strategies target ways of fully including all students
in the learning process despite very complex and challenging needs.
Considerable attention is paid to adapting academic areas and providing
J. E. (2005a). Teaching communication skills to students with severe
disabilities. (2nd. ed.) Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
This book contains many
practical strategies for assessing the communication skills of students with
very complex and challenging needs. A student-centered and natural context
approach is taken in determining what communication skills are needed.
Suggestions are provided for facilitating communication skill development in
everyday situations across the age span. Specific emphasis is placed on
encouraging interactions between children with and without severe disabilities
in typical educational situations. Multiple modes of communication are stressed
for children who typically do not depend on speech alone to convey their
J.E. (2005b). Teaching literacy to students with significant disabilities:
Strategies for the K-12 inclusive classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
This book stresses the
importance of literacy for all children and youth and specifically focuses on
those who have often been denied access to literacy experiences. The concept of
literacy is defined broadly to enable access for all children. Specific
examples of adapted literacy materials and activities at different age and
grade levels are provided throughout the text.
L. (1997). Communication: A guide to teaching students with visual and
multiple impairments. Austin: TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually
This resource discusses how
deaf-blindness and visual impairment in children with severe disabilities can
affect their communication. It provides approaches for assessing and teaching
communication skills, and describes a standard tactual symbol system and
K.M., Prickett, J.G., Welch, T.R., & Joffe, E. (Eds.) (1995). Hand in
hand: Essentials of communication and orientation and mobility for your
students who are deaf-blind. New York: AFB Press.
This comprehensive resource
provides information on communication and orientation and mobility instruction
for students who are deaf-blind. It provides key concepts, instructional
strategies, and learning activities for working on these two areas with
preschoolers, elementary, and high school students who are deaf-blind.
M.D., Chen, D., & Haney, M. (2000). Promoting learning through active
interaction: A guide to early communication with young children who have
multiple disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
This field-tested curriculum is
composed of five modules for promoting intentional communication with young
children who have severe and multiple disabilities. Handouts and recording
sheets are provided in English and Spanish.
M., & MacWilliam, L. (2002). Learning together. A creative approach to
learning for children with multiple disabilities and a visual impairment.
London, England: RNIB. www.royalblindschool.org.uk
This book describes a
communication program that has been used extensively with children who have
multiple disabilities and visual impairment in Scotland. Topics include
movement interaction, developing natural gesture, learning a sign system,
encouraging play, the learning environment, and observations of non-verbal
M., & McCall, S. (2002). Learning through touch. Supporting children
with visual impairment and additional difficulties. London, England: David
This book provides an in-depth
discussion of research on the sense of touch and the influence of visual
impairment and additional disabilities on learning through touch. It provides
practical suggestions for assessing a childs use of touch; and for
developing learning experiences, communication, early literacy, and tactile
B., & Riggio, M. (Eds.) (1999). Remarkable conversations: A guide to
developing meaningful conversations with children and young adults who are
deafblind. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind.
This book addresses the
complexity of communication with students who are deaf-blind and who
demonstrate different levels of ability. It contains beautiful photographs of
interactions with these students. Topics include understanding deafblindness,
conversations as the essence of communication, partnerships with families,
selection of communication modes, developing language, and meeting the needs of
C., & Schweigert, P. (2000). Tangible symbol systems (Rev. ed.).
Portland, OR: Center on Self-Determination, Oregon Health and Science
University, Design to Learn Products. www.designtolearn.com
This manual provides a
field-tested systematic instructional sequence for teaching students who have
severe and multiple disabilities to communicate using a concrete symbol system.
Tangible symbols (objects or pictures) are defined as having an obvious
relationship to their referents.
C., & Schweigert, P. (2005). First things first. Early communication for
the pre-symbolic child with severe disabilities. Portland, OR: Oregon
Health & Science University, Design to Learn Products.
This manual provides an
overview of communication development with a focus on strategies to support
children who are pre-symbolic communicators. It offers a format for assessing
the childs communicative behaviors and for collecting data to monitor and
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Barnard, K.E., & Brazelton, T.B. (Eds.) (1990). Touch.
The foundation of experience. National Center for Clinical Infant Programs.
contains the proceedings of Johnson and Johnson Pediatric Round Table X. Papers
discuss tactile experiences from philosophical, neuroanatomical, developmental,
and therapeutic perspectives.
A. (1986). Touching. The human significance of the skin (3rd ed). New
York: Harper & Row.
discusses the profound effects of tactile experiences on emotion, behavior, and
development. It draws on diverse studies of animals and humans from the fields
of medicine, biology, psychology, and anthropology to demonstrate the
importance of tactile stimulation and physical contact.
Chen, D., & Downing, J.E. (2006). Tactile learning
strategies: Interacting with children who have visual impairments and multiple
disabilities [ video & DVD]. New York: AFB Press
video and DVD will be available in English (closed-captioned) and Spanish.
Examples of a number of tactile strategies are shown, including mutual tactile
attention, tactile modeling, hand-under-hand and hand-over-hand guidance, touch
and object cues, coactive and tactile signing.
D., Klein, M.D., & Haney. (2000). Promoting learning through active
interaction: An instructional video [video & booklet]. Baltimore: Paul
H. Brookes. www.brookespublishing.com
closed captioned video demonstrates a step-by-step process for developing
intentional communication with young children with severe and multiple
disabilities. The video is available in Spanish.
D., & Schachter, P.H. (1997). Making the most of early communication.
Strategies for supporting communication with infants, toddlers, and
preschoolers whose multiple disabilities include vision and hearing loss
[video & booklet]. New York: AFB Press. www.afb.org
closed-captioned video provides examples of early caregiver-infant games,
simulations of visual impairment and hearing loss, and strategies to promote
communication in young children. It shows interviews with parents and teachers
and preschoolers in oral and total communication classrooms. The video is
available with audio description.
E. (1987). Getting in touch [Video & booklet]. Champaign, IL:
Research Press. www.researchpress.com
video demonstrates the use of touch and object cues with a wide age-range
children who are deaf-blind. It also provides tips on interpersonal and tactile
considerations in greeting, and interacting with a student who is totally deaf
K.M., Prickett, J.G., Welch, T.R., & Joffe, E. (Eds.) (1995). Hand in
hand: It can be done [Video & booklet]. New York: AFB Press.
closed-captioned video provides an introduction to working with students of all
ages who are deaf-blind, with a particular focus on communication and
orientation and mobility. It provides demonstrations of practical suggestions
and insights from teachers and family members.
J., & Bailey, B. (1997). Textured communication symbols: Talking through
touch [Video & booklet]. Terra Haute, IN: Blumberg Center for
Interdisciplinary Studies in Special Education, Indiana State University. (800)
video and booklet provides considerations for developing a communication system
using textures for individuals with multiple disabilities and sensory
impairments. These materials provide guidelines for deciding whether an
individual needs textured symbols and how to develop them. A four phase
instructional process is provided to teach an individual to use the
C., & Schweigert, P. (1996). Tangible symbol systems (Rev. ed.).
Portland, OR: Center on Self-Determination, Oregon Health Sciences University,
Design to Learn Products. www.designtolearn.com
videotape provides illustrations of individuals using tangible symbols and
shows how five children learned to use this system of communication. It
accompanies the manual Tangible symbol systems.
Institute. (1992-93). Introduction to tactile communication series.
[Video]. HOPE. www.hopepubl.com
closed-captioned videotape provides introduces tactile communication and the
other videotapes in this series on tactile communication.
Institute. (1993). Using tactile signals and cues [Video series].
Logan,UT: HOPE. www.hopepubl.com
series of five closed-captioned videotapes demonstrates how to use tactile
signals and cues with young children who need tactile communication. The tapes
show specific strategies for selecting and using signals, providing choices,
promoting turn taking, using coactive signs, and creating activities to support
Institute. (1990). A coactive sign system. [Video series]. Logan, UT:
series of nine closed-captioned videotapes demonstrates how to use coactive
signing with children who need this hand-on-hand system of communication. The
tapes provide vocabulary and teaching tips; and show the use of coactive signs
in home situations.
Institute. (1992-93). Using tactile interactive conversational signing
[Video series]. Logan, UT: HOPE. www.hopepubl.com
series of five closed-captioned videotapes demonstrates the use of interactive
signing (feeling anothers signs), the transition from coactive to
interactive signing, materials and activities that promote interaction,
supporting interaction with peers, and interpreting for people who use
Research Division (1997). You & Me. Communication. Monmouth, OR:
Western Oregon State College, Author. (503) 838-8391
video provides information on the concepts, skills, and supports that are
needed for a student who is deaf-blind to communicate in an inclusive
elementary school. The video demonstrates the use of object cues, coactive
signing; and tactile signing with adults and peers. The video is available with
Australia Deafblind Association (2001). Where do I begin? Developing
communication with children who are born deafblind. Maylands, West
Australia: Author. firstname.lastname@example.org
with open captions presents key strategies for developing communication with
children who are deaf-blind: Making contact approach, building
rapport, acknowledging communication efforts, using tactile cues and symbols,
tactile signing, establishing routines, choice-making, and interrupted routine.
It stresses the importance of following the childs lead, particularly
following the childs hands in supporting expressive communication,
respecting the childs needs and consistent use of selected communication
Impaired Preschool Services (1996). Hands on experience: Tactual learning
skills. Can Do! Series [video]. Louisville, KY: Author.
video demonstrates the benefits of touching, handling, manipulating objects,
and active participation in everyday situations. For children who are blind,
these hands-on experiences provide the foundation for braille