of an activity by having the child (observer) feel the demonstrators
actions by touching parts of the body or objects involved in
the action. A means of demonstrating something to a child who
is totally blind.
convey information about an activity or action to a child who
has severe visual impairments in a way that the child can perceive
it tactilely and imitate it, if appropriate.
has her 2-year-old son David on her lap with his back to her.
Lavada sings and claps her hands between Davids hands;
then she stops and pauses for a few seconds. She resumes singing
and prompts David to clap by tapping his hands and saying "You
teacher shows 5-year-old Joseph the materials for the art activity:
cardboard, pieces of wood and the glue bottle. She puts her
hands under Josephs hands so he can feel her grasp a piece
of wood, squeeze the bottle of glue, put glue on the wood and
stick it on the cardboard. She says "Your turn" and
touches the bottle of glue to Josephs hand.
and John each have a communication board with tangible symbols
in their elementary classroom. John picks up a symbol by putting
his hand under Juanitas so she can follow his action.
He touches Juanitas hand to indicate that it is her turn.
Juanita selects a tangible symbol from her communication board.
the action multiple times before expecting the child to imitate
the action and provide sufficient wait time between tactile
models so that the child will understand when the action is
whether the use of tactile modeling is an efficient method
of instruction for an individual child given his or her individual
preferences, needs, and abilities.
modeling provides a means for a child who is blind to observe
the actions of another person.
modeling promotes conversational turn taking. The teacher demonstrates
something, the student repeats it, and the teacher provides
feedback. This turn taking may include comments and nonverbal
modeling may be uncomfortable for the child and communication
partner because of differences in their age, gender, relationship,
culture and experiences.
children may not easily or safely perceive some activities through
tactile modeling (e.g., blowing out a candle).
modeling provides one aspect of an activity at a time (e.g.,
steps in making a sandwich), so for multi step activities the
child must remember a sequence of actions.
from tactile modeling requires hand use, cognitive skills, memory
and the ability to synthesize information (which can develop
Modeling represents a synthesis of information from Project
SALUTEs focus groups, National Advisory Committee, staff
activities, and a review of relevant literature such as the